Brain stimulation techniques such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) offer the powerful means by which to noninvasively modulate neural function. Research in our lab is interested in the application of such neuromodulation techniques to improve cognitive faculties, emotional regulation, and motor function. Among these studies is a U01 award through the National Institute for Aging to study the combination of working memory training and TMS for improving working memory abilities that typically decline with age. We have also recently received a BRAIN Initiative award with colleagues in the School of Engineering and in the Departments of Psychology and Neurology to investigate dose-response relationships underlying repetitive TMS through systematic studies in both humans and non-human primates. In another exciting line of research done in conjunction with the Department of Surgery, we are currently developing a surgical training program that utilizes tDCS and eye tracking to facilitate laparoscopic skill learning in medical residents in the Duke cardiothoracic training program.